Minerals are solid, naturally occurring, inorganic substances found in the Earth's crust. Metals are elementary substances, such as gold, platinum, palladium, silver and copper. They are crystalline when solid and naturally occur in minerals. They are often good conductors of electricity and heat, shiny and malleable.
Large amounts of catalysts are used in the fluid catalytic cracking, residue fluid catalytic cracking, dehydrogenation, reforming and hydrogenation in petroleum refining, and petrochemical industries. Catalysts are discarded as solid waste after deactivation resulting from fouling, poisoning, and thermal degradation/sintering. Spent catalysts are important sources of Platinum. However, they often contain coke, vanadium, lead, nickel, and organics that may cause serious pollution to soil and water. Platinum Recovery from spent petroleum catalysts with the consideration of environment is of significance.
Precious metals recycling and processing refers to the recycling of all raw materials and scraps containing precious metals: gold, silver, palladium, rhodium, platinum and others. Most importantly, precious metals are infinitely recyclable. Precious metals recovery can be successfully made from waste, considered to be secondary sources of raw material. Hydrometallurgical & Pyrometallurgical routes are most important ways of processing waste.
Metals and minerals are essential to almost all aspects of life; they enable farming, healthcare, communications, water and energy supply, transport, space technology and the construction of cities. Will help to deliver pathways for greener, safer, more sustainable future.